The Integrative Physiology studies the processes that occur within all living organisms including the regulation of functions at the subcellular, cell, tissue, organ and whole organism levels, as well as their interactions and integration.
The primary function of the renal system is to regulate blood volume and plasma osmolarity, and waste removal via urine is essentially a convenient way that the body performs many functions using one process. Urine formation occurs during three processes: Filtration, Reabsorption and Secretion.
The reproductive system is the biological system made up of all the anatomical organs involved in sexual reproduction. Substances such as fluids, hormones, and pheromones are also important accessories to the reproductive system. The sexes of differentiated species often have significant differences which allow for a combination of genetic material between two individuals, which allows for the possibility of greater genetic fitness of the offspring.